¿CÓMO AFECTAN LAS HERNIAS DISCALES A TU CUERPO?

                 

Probablemente conozcas a alguien diagnosticado de hernia discal, quizá incluso tú tengas una pero, ¿sabes qué son exactamente y cómo afectan a nuestra salud?

¿Qué es una hernia discal?

Entre cada una de nuestras vértebras hay un disco (el disco intervertebral) que funciona como amortiguador. El disco intervertebral está formado por dos partes: el núcleo pulposo (la parte céntrica, de textura tipo gelatinosa) y el anillo fibroso (rodea al núcleo pulposo, permitiendo cierto movimiento pero manteniéndolo en su lugar; su textura, como su propio nombre indica, es más fibrosa).

Debido a su textura gelatinosa, al presionar en uno de los laterales del disco el núcleo pulposo se desplaza hacia el contralateral pero, gracias al anillo fibroso, permanece dentro del disco durante el movimiento. Sin embargo, debido al exceso de carga, presión y movimientos repetidos o continuados, no es infrecuente que el anillo fibroso termine por fallar dando lugar al abombamiento del disco (protrusión), o que se fisure y parte del núcleo pulposo salga (hernia discal).

                                        

¿Cómo aparecen las hernias?

Pueden aparecer debido a un proceso paulatino de desgaste del disco o a grandes esfuerzos (coger peso con las vértebras en flexión, etc.). Generalmente aparecen en la zona posterior del disco porque la parte trasera del anillo fibroso es más fina que la anterior.

El desgaste del disco es un proceso natural. Mientras dormimos el disco permanece libre de peso y aprovecha para recuperarse de la presión recibida, pero con el paso de los años el anillo fibroso va perdiendo resistencia y puede romperse sin ninguna causa aparente, dando lugar a una hernia. Si sometes al disco a malas posturas habituales, exceso de peso, movimientos repetitivos o falta de movimientos, este proceso de degeneración se va a ver aumentado y es más probable que el disco falle antes.

La aparición de una hernia se debe sobre todo al proceso de desgaste. Incluso cuando el mecanismo ha sido coger un peso, lo normal es que el disco llevara tiempo degenerándose y el peso es el desencadenante final para la rotura del anillo fibroso. Este proceso degenerativo puede ocurrir sin que notes nada porque no tenemos sensibilidad en el disco y hasta que no protruye ocasionando algún pinzamiento o una respuesta inflamatoria del cuerpo, no provoca síntomas. Si el desencadenante final es un mecanismo en concreto, el dolor suele ser más intenso debido a que el cuerpo genera una reacción de “defensa” rápida que provoca la contracción de la musculatura.

Ciertos factores pueden contribuir a aumentar, aunque muy ligeramente, las probabilidades de padecer una hernia: musculatura débil, escasez de movimiento a lo largo del día, genética (heredar un anillo fibroso débil, discos menos resistentes…), rectificación en la columna…

¿Qué síntomas son característicos de una hernia discal?

Ya hemos comentado que en el interior del disco no hay nervios y no tenemos sensibilidad; sin embargo, en el anillo fibroso sí hay determinadas zonas donde podemos tener sensibilidad, principalmente en la parte postero-lateral. Puedes tener una hernia asintomática si la salida del líquido se produce en una de las zonas sin nervio, pero si ocurre en algún área del anillo que sí tiene inervación o si comprime la raíz nerviosa puede provocar:

  • Dolor local: la musculatura de la zona se contrae para limitar el movimiento y avisarte de que es una zona delicada, es su manera de proteger la zona. Suele molestar cerca del origen de la hernia, normalmente duele más a primera hora del día, y empeora al estar un rato quieto y cambiar de postura.
  • Dolor irradiado: se puede notar que el dolor tiene un recorrido hacia el brazo, si el origen es cervical, o la pierna, si es lumbar.

¿Influyen las subluxaciones en las hernias?

                   

Es importante tener en cuenta que la hernia discal es una patología frecuente y en muchos casos asintomática. En ocasiones el hallazgo de la hernia es algo circunstancial y no es propiamente el origen del dolor, principalmente en los casos en los que no hay irradiación. De hecho, hay estudios que demuestran que gran parte de la población sana (sin dolor) tienen protrusiones discales al verlo con una resonancia y un porcentaje algo menor incluso hernias. Esto ocurre también en gente joven, a los 20 años la incidencia de protrusiones es del 73% en hombres y 78% en mujeres.

Tengas o no una hernia discal, es importante mantener un buen cuidado de tu columna vertebral, ya que no es raro que puedan diagnosticarte una a lo largo de tu vida. Las subluxaciones pueden contribuir a acelerar el proceso de degeneración del disco al impedir el correcto movimiento de la articulación, de la misma manera que un disco degenerado puede contribuir a que las vértebras estén subluxadas en ese nivel.

¿Quieres aportar algún dato a nuestro Blog? ¡Estamos encantados de recibir tus sugerencias! Si tienes alguna pregunta, no dudes en contactar o pedir cita con nosotros, ¡ahora también puedes hacerlo online!

 

HOW HERNIATED DISCS AFFECT TO YOUR BODY?

                 

 

Probably you know someone who is diagnosed with a herniated disc, maybe you have one as well, but, do you know what they are and how can they affect to our health?

What is a herniated disc?

Between each one of our vertebrae there is a disc (the intervertebral disc) which works like a shock absorber. These intervertebral discs are composed by two parts: the nucleus pulposus (the central area, with a gelatinous texture) and the annulus fibrosis (it surrounds the nucleus pulposus allowing some movement, but keeping it in position; having a fibrous texture as its own name indicates).

Due to this gelatinous texture, if one of the sides of the intervertebral disc is pressed, the nucleus pulposus displaces itself to the contralateral side, but, thanks to the annulus fibrosis, it stays inside the disc during this movement. Nevertheless, because of excessive loads, pressure and repetitive or continuous movements it is not unusual that the annulus fibrosis fails, generating a disc ballooning (bulge) or the appearance of a breakage in the leading part where the nucleus pulposus emerges (herniated disc).

                                        

How herniated discs appear?

They can be the result of a gradual process of the disc wearing, or due to great efforts (lifting weight with your spine in flexion, etc.). Habitually, they appear on the posterior area of the disc because this part of the annulus fibrosis is thinner than the anterior one.

The disc wearing is a natural process. While sleeping, our intervertebral discs remain without weight, and they recover themselves from the pressure received during the day; but over the years, the annulus fibrosis loses strength and it could be broken for no apparent cause, originating a herniated disc. If you force your vertebral discs to adopt bad postures, loading excessive weights, doing repetitive movements or if you don’t move at all, this wearing process is increased, and it is likely that the disc could fail sooner.

The apparition of a herniated disc is mainly a consequence of this wearing process. Even when the injury mechanism has been due to carry weight, usually the intervertebral disc is already suffering this process, and to lift that weight is the triggering situation for the break of the annulus fibrosis. This degenerative process may happen and remain unnoticed, because we have not sensitiveness in our discs and it does not provoke any symptoms until the annulus fibrosis is disrupted, and the nucleus pulposus comes out pinching the nerve or causing a swelling answer in our body. If the triggering situation is a particular mechanism, the pain is usually more intense because our body generates a quick “defensive” reaction that provokes a muscle contraction.

There are some factors that may increase -although slightly- the chances of having a herniated disc: weakened musculature, lack of movement during the day, genetic (to inherit a weakened annulus fibrosis, low resistance disc…), rectified spine…

What sort of symptoms are characteristic of a herniated disc?

We already have mentioned that there are no nerves inside our intervertebral discs, and we have not sensitiveness in there; however, in our annulus fibrosis there are some areas where we can have some sensitiveness, especially on the posterior lateral area. You can have an asymptomatic herniated disc if the bulge appears on an area without nerves, but if it appears on an innervated area or if it presses on a spinal nerve, it may provoke:

  • Local pain: the muscle on the area contracts for limiting the movement and to warn you that you are forcing a sensitive area; it is the defensive system for protecting the zone. Normally, it hurts near the origin of the herniated disc, the pain is worse at first hours of the day and it aggravates when you stand still and you change the posture.
  • Radiating pain: you can feel the pain throughout your arm (if the origin is in the cervical area) or throughout your leg (if the origin is in lumbar area).

Do subluxations have any influence over the herniated disc?

                   

It is important to consider that a herniated disc is a frequent pathology, and in many cases, is asymptomatic. Sometimes, finding a herniated disc is something circumstantial, and it is not the origin of the pain, especially when there is not irradiating pain. In fact, several studies show that a large proportion of the healthy population (without pain) have bulges when you observe them through a magnetic resonance, and a smaller part of them have inclusive herniated discs. This also applies to young people; at 20 years of age the incidence of bulges is 73% in men and 78% in women.

Having or not a herniated disc, it is crucial to keep a perfect care of your spine, because it is not unlikely being diagnosed with it along your life. Subluxations avoid the correct movement of the joint and, for this reason, they can contribute to accelerate the wearing process of the intervertebral disc. Similarly, a wore intervertebral disc may be involved in the apparition of subluxations.

Do you want to contribute anything to our Blog, any personal experience? We will be happy to receive your suggestions! If you have any questions do not hesitate in consulting us, or asking for an appointment in our Chiropractic Center, now you can do it online if you wish!

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